Solar energy which reaches the earth's surface is known as insolation (B).

Albedo (A) is the ability of a surface to reflect incoming solar energy. For instance, snow has a high albedo effect.

Convection (C) is the transfer of heat by circulation or movement of the heated parts of a liquid (such as in molten material in the asthenosphere) or gas (such as in the atmosphere).

Conduction (D) is the transfer of heat between two parts of a stationary system caused by a temperature difference between the parts. For example, heat is transferred from a stove element to the bottom of a frying pan by conduction.